Residents are being told to check products they may have bought in recent weeks after seizures from shops in the districts of Darfield, Wombwell and Hoyland.
Food standards officers says that some of the vodka has been found to have high levels of alcohol that is likely to have been diluted down from industrial alcohol and is not intended for human consumption.
As well as counterfeit Smirnoff red label, the warning relates to suspect bottles of Arctic Ice vodka.
Barnsley Council said the illegal product can be identified by a nail polish, acetone smell and a printed black lot number visible through the glass on the back of the front label.
Councillor Roy Miller, cabinet spokesman for development, environment and culture, said: “Counterfeit products such as these do not only have a detrimental effect on legitimate trade but are also potentially very harmful to a person’s health.”